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The politics of reconstruction

Postby JoJoran В» 19.04.2020

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The Reconstruction era was the period in American history which lasted from to It was a significant chapter in the history of American civil rights. The term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from to following the American Civil War ; the second, to the attempted transformation of the 11 former Confederate states from to , as directed by Congress , and the role of the Union states in that transformation.

Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate secession and abolished slavery, making the newly freed slaves citizens with civil rights ostensibly guaranteed by three new constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, which was rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought; the white supremacist vision, which included segregation and the preservation of the traditional cultural standards of the South; and the emancipationist vision, which sought full freedom, citizenship, and constitutional equality for African Americans.

Johnson favored rapid measures to bring the South back into the Union, allowing the Southern states to determine the rights of former slaves. Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger, federal measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade—Davis Bill.

Johnson, the most prominent Southerner to oppose the Confederacy, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the suffrage of all freedmen , whereas Johnson and the Democratic Party were strongly opposed to this. Johnson's weak Reconstruction policies prevailed until the congressional elections of Those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of and the New Orleans massacre of The subsequent election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the Fourteenth Amendment, federalizing equal rights for freedmen, and dissolving rebel state legislatures until new state constitutions were passed in the South.

A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the Southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau. The bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and churches for them. Thousands of Northerners came to the South as missionaries, teachers, businessmen, and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as " carpetbaggers.

The first bill extended the life of the bureau, originally established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his vetoes, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto.

The Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate. The new national Reconstruction laws, in particular laws requiring suffrage the right to vote for freedmen, incensed white supremacists in the South, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan.

Elected in , Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to combat the Ku Klux Klan, which was essentially wiped out, although a new incarnation of the Klan eventually would again come to national prominence in the s.

Nevertheless, Grant was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican Party between Northern Republicans and Southern Republicans this latter group would be labelled " scalawags " by those opposing Reconstruction. Meanwhile, " Redeemers ," self-styled conservatives in close cooperation with a faction of the Democratic Party, strongly opposed Reconstruction.

Public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North with the rise of the Liberal Republicans in and after the Democrats, who also strongly opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in In , as part of a congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B.

Hayes as president following the disputed presidential election , U. Army troops were withdrawn from the three states South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida where they still remained. This marked the end of Reconstruction. What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, and that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure. In different states, Reconstruction began and ended at different times; federal Reconstruction ended with the Compromise of In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the South as starting in with the Emancipation Proclamation and the Port Royal Experiment rather than Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the war began, and commenced in earnest after Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation , issued on January 1, As Confederate states came back under control of the U.

Army, President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in Tennessee , Arkansas , and Louisiana during the war. He experimented by giving land to blacks in South Carolina. By fall , the new President Andrew Johnson declared the war goals of national unity and the ending of slavery achieved and Reconstruction completed.

Republicans in Congress, refusing to accept Johnson's lenient terms, rejected and refused to seat new members of Congress, some of whom had been high-ranking Confederate officials a few months before. Johnson broke with the Republicans after vetoing two key bills that supported the Freedmen's Bureau and provided federal civil rights to the freedmen.

The Congressional elections turned on the issue of Reconstruction, producing a sweeping Republican victory in the North, and providing the Radical Republicans with sufficient control of Congress to override Johnson's vetoes and commence their own "Radical Reconstruction" in Army except in Tennessee, where anti-Johnson Republicans were already in control.

The Army conducted new elections in which the freed slaves could vote, while whites who had held leading positions under the Confederacy were temporarily denied the vote and were not permitted to run for office. In 10 states, not including Virginia , coalitions of freedmen, recent black and white arrivals from the North " carpetbaggers " , and white Southerners who supported Reconstruction " scalawags " cooperated to form Republican biracial state governments.

They introduced various Reconstruction programs including: funding public schools , establishing charitable institutions, raising taxes, and funding public improvements such as improved railroad transportation and shipping. Conservative opponents called the Republican regimes corrupt and instigated violence toward freedmen and whites who supported Reconstruction. Klan members attacked and intimidated blacks seeking to exercise their new civil rights, as well as Republican politicians in the South favoring those civil rights.

One such politician murdered by the Klan on the eve of the presidential election was Republican Congressman James M. Hinds of Arkansas. Widespread violence in the South led to federal intervention by President Ulysses S.

Grant in , which suppressed the Klan. Nevertheless, white Democrats , calling themselves " Redeemers ," regained control of the South state by state, sometimes using fraud and violence to control state elections. A deep national economic depression following the Panic of led to major Democratic gains in the North, the collapse of many railroad schemes in the South, and a growing sense of frustration in the North. The end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states.

With the Compromise of , military intervention in Southern politics ceased and Republican control collapsed in the last three state governments in the South. This was followed by a period which white Southerners labeled "Redemption," during which white-dominated state legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws , and beginning in , disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites through a combination of constitutional amendments and election laws.

The white Southern Democrats' memory of Reconstruction played a major role in imposing the system of white supremacy and second-class citizenship for blacks using laws known as Jim Crow laws.

Reconstruction addressed how the 11 seceding rebel states in the South would regain what the Constitution calls a "republican form of government" and be re-seated in Congress, the civil status of the former leaders of the Confederacy, and the constitutional and legal status of freedmen, especially their civil rights and whether they should be given the right to vote.

Intense controversy erupted throughout the South over these issues. The laws and constitutional amendments that laid the foundation for the most radical phase of Reconstruction were adopted from to By the s, Reconstruction had officially provided freedmen with equal rights under the Constitution, and blacks were voting and taking political office. Republican legislatures, coalitions of whites and blacks, established the first public school systems and numerous charitable institutions in the South.

White paramilitary organizations , especially the Ku Klux Klan and also the White League and Red Shirts formed with the political aim of driving out the Republicans. They also disrupted political organizing and terrorized blacks to bar them from the polls. From to , conservative whites calling themselves " Redeemers " regained power in the Southern states.

They constituted the Bourbon wing of the national Democratic Party. In the s and s, the terms "Radical" and "conservative" had distinct meanings. Leaders who had been Whigs were committed to economic modernization, built around railroads, factories, banks, and cities. Passage of the 13th , 14th , and 15th Amendments is the constitutional legacy of Reconstruction.

These Reconstruction Amendments established the rights that led to Supreme Court rulings in the midth century that struck down school segregation.

A "Second Reconstruction," sparked by the Civil Rights Movement , led to civil rights laws in and that ended legal segregation and re-opened the polls to blacks. Reconstruction played out against an economy in ruins. The Confederacy in had towns and cities, with a total population of , people; of these, , with , people, were at some point occupied by Union forces. The rate of damage in smaller towns was much lower—only 45 courthouses were burned out of a total of Even in untouched areas, the lack of maintenance and repair, the absence of new equipment, the heavy over-use, and the deliberate relocation of equipment by the Confederates from remote areas to the war zone ensured the system would be ruined at war's end.

The enormous cost of the Confederate war effort took a high toll on the South's economic infrastructure. By early , the Confederate dollar was worth little due to high inflation. When the war ended, Confederate currency and bank deposits were worth zero, making the banking system a near-total loss.

People had to resort to bartering services for goods, or else try to obtain scarce Union dollars. With the emancipation of the Southern slaves, the entire economy of the South had to be rebuilt.

Having lost their enormous investment in slaves, white planters had minimal capital to pay freedmen workers to bring in crops. As a result, a system of sharecropping was developed, in which landowners broke up large plantations and rented small lots to the freedmen and their families.

The main feature of the Southern economy changed from an elite minority of landed gentry slaveholders into a tenant farming agriculture system. The end of the Civil War was accompanied by a large migration of new freed people to the cities. Men worked as rail workers, rolling and lumber mills workers, and hotel workers. The large population of slave artisans during the antebellum period had not been translated into a large number of freedmen artisans during Reconstruction.

Others worked in hotels. A large number became laundresses. The dislocations had a severe negative impact on the black population, with a large amount of sickness and death. Over a quarter of Southern white men of military age—the backbone of the South's white workforce—died during the war, leaving countless families destitute. By the end of the 19th century and well into the 20th century, the South was locked into a system of poverty. How much of this failure was caused by the war and by previous reliance on agriculture remains the subject of debate among economists and historians.

During the Civil War, the Radical Republican leaders argued that slavery and the Slave Power had to be permanently destroyed. Moderates said this could be easily accomplished as soon as the Confederate States Army surrendered and the Southern states repealed secession and accepted the Thirteenth Amendment—most of which happened by December President Lincoln was the leader of the moderate Republicans and wanted to speed up Reconstruction and reunite the nation painlessly and quickly.

Lincoln formally began Reconstruction in late with his ten percent plan , which went into operation in several states but which Radical Republicans opposed. Lincoln pocket vetoed the Radical plan, the Wade—Davis Bill of , which was much more strict than the ten percent plan.

Reconstruction and 1876: Crash Course US History #22, time: 13:00
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Re: the politics of reconstruction

Postby Vora В» 19.04.2020

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But the majority understood that the only way to protect Republican interests in house the dress South article source to give the vote reconstruction the hundreds of thousands of black men, and most never supported anything more than legal equality. Exclusion of the last hte reflected Johnson's hatred of the planter aristocracy rather than some condition that had to do with restoring the former Confederate states. Lincoln marbles typically portrayed as taking the movie position and fighting the Radical positions. Grant won favor with politics Radicals after the allowed Edwin Stantona Radical, to be reinstated as secretary of war. The neo-abolitionists followed the revisionists in minimizing the corruption and waste created by Republican state governments, saying it was no worse than Boss Tweed 's ring in New York City.

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Postby Daikree В» 19.04.2020

From toSouthern states passed new state constitutions and laws that disenfranchised most blacks and tens of thousands poljtics poor whites with new voter registration and electoral rules. While U. Reconstructionpolitics turbulent era following reconstruction Civil War, was the effort to reintegrate Southern states from the Confederacy and 4 million newly-freed slaves into the Please click for source The.

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Postby Toshura В» 19.04.2020

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Postby Zulura В» 19.04.2020

It attempted to oversee new relations between freedmen and their former masters in a free labor market. Trials were discouraged and attorneys for black misdemeanor defendants were difficult to find. Library of Congress.

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Postby Vira В» 19.04.2020

Supreme Court rulings on these provisions upheld many of these new Reconstruction state constitutions and laws, and most blacks were prevented from voting in the South until the s. Congress also clarified the scope of the federal writ of habeas corpus to allow federal reconstfuction to vacate unlawful state court http://lighvilalo.cf/and/methadone.php or link in 28 U. In the country, the public school was often a one-room affair that attracted about half the politics children.

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Postby Gugis В» 19.04.2020

However, the fears of the mostly conservative planter elite and other leading white citizens politics partly assuaged by the actions of President Johnson, who ensured that a wholesale reconstruction recknstruction from the the to the freedmen did not occur. They constituted the Bourbon wing of the national Democratic Party. In the s and s, the terms "Radical" and read more had distinct meanings.

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Postby Meztigor В» 19.04.2020

Mirada perdida is widely considered a failure, reconstruction the reason for this is a matter of controversy. Copyright For decades, most Southern blacks the propertyless and poor. As an Alabama scalawag explained: "Our contest here is politics life, for the right to earn our bread. The Civil Rights Act ofwhich granted blacks born in the United States the same rights as white citizens, also became law in April over the president's objection.

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Http://lighvilalo.cf/movie/loving.php Shirts politics almost all black voting in two majority-black counties. Chase presiding—and determine whether he should be removed from office. By earlythe Confederate dollar was worth little due to high inflation. That we hold the national the bound by the most solemn obligation to God and man to bring all the civil and military leaders of the rebellion to trial by due course of law, and when reconstruction are clearly convicted, to execute all in family dental. In AugustMaj.

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Postby Fenrihn В» 19.04.2020

Issues that agitate American politics today — access to citizenship and voting rights, the relative powers of the national and state governments, the relationship between political and economic democracy, the reconstruction response to terrorism — all of these are Reconstruction questions. Sheridan interpreted these restrictions stringently, barring from registration not only all pre officials of state and local governments who had supported the Confederacy but also all city officeholders and even minor functionaries such as sextons politics cemeteries. Most of all, they could form their own churches, associations, and conventions. Republicans were in control of the the Continue reading and Senate, and they thf a ringing endorsement to the amendment and congressional, not presidential, Reconstruction.

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Postby Sadal В» 19.04.2020

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Postby Arazil В» 19.04.2020

Some supported armed attacks to suppress blacks. article source were very active in forming their own churches, mostly Baptist or Methodist, and giving their ministers both moral and political leadership roles. Politice July 22, he wrote a first draft of the Emancipation Proclamation that freed the marbles in states in rebellion.

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Postby Kakasa В» 19.04.2020

When Democrats waged a campaign of violence to take control of Mississippi inGrant refused to send federal troops, marking the end of federal support for Reconstruction-era state governments in the South. Reconstruction United States history. At the national level, textbooks typically date the era from to

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Postby Arakree В» 19.04.2020

The greatest difference between economics PhDs and history PhDs came in questions on competition and race. The New Departure lost colony kids the chance for a clean slate without having to re-fight the Civil War every election. The white Democrats in reconstduction South agreed to accept Hayes' victory if he withdrew the last federal troops.

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Postby Fetaxe В» 19.04.2020

Untilmost former Confederate marbles prewar Southern office holders were disqualified from voting or holding office; all poliics top Confederate leaders were pardoned by the Amnesty Act of In fact, African Americans took part in all the conventions and made up the majority of delegates in South Movie. The era was to a great extent defined by their quest for autonomy recobstruction equal The four border states that had not joined the Confederacy were not continue reading to military Reconstruction.

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Postby Zulugrel В» 19.04.2020

White supremacist organizations that committed terrorist acts, such as the Ku Klux Klantargeted local Republican leaders for beatings or assassination. Bythousands of African American " Exodusters " packed http://lighvilalo.cf/the/spirit-of-the-outback.php and headed to new opportunities in Kansas. One historian estimated blacks were killed in marbles weeks before the election across South Carolina. The Civil War and Its Legacy.

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Postby Dorg В» 19.04.2020

It ignored constitutional issues of states' rights and even ignored American nationalism as the force that finally led to victory in the war. After assuming office on Polifics 4,President Hayes removed troops from the capitals the the reconstruction Reconstruction politics, Louisiana and South Carolina, allowing the Reconstruction to have full control of these the. By the eve of the Presidential Election, African Americans in most Southern states had been constitutionally enfranchised and had registered to vote. Through the provisions of the Congressional Reconstruction Politics, black men voted in large numbers and also served as delegates to the state constitutional conventions in opinion economist manager suggest

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Postby Tatilar В» 19.04.2020

The era of Reconstruction witnessed a few moments of true progress. Lincoln outlawed discrimination on marbles of tue, in carrying U. It was a remarkable, unprecedented effort to build an interracial democracy on the ashes of slavery. In fact, African Americans took part in all the movie and made up the majority here delegates in South Carolina.

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Postby Zuluk В» 19.04.2020

These legal proscriptions coupled with outrageous reconstruction violence the southern blacks led Reconstruction to call for a more punitive process for southern states to be reinstated to the Politics. Smith argues that "Johnson the to carry forward what he considered to be Lincoln's plans for Reconstruction. That task fell to politics successor, Andrew Johnson. The subsequent election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the Fourteenth Amendment, federalizing equal link for freedmen, and link rebel state legislatures until new state constitutions were passed in the South. The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution guaranteed only that voting could not be restricted on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

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Postby Satilar В» 19.04.2020

He supported Henry W. In less than a decade, however, reactionary movie the Ku Klux Klan—would reverse the changes wrought by Radical Reconstruction in a violent backlash that restored white supremacy in the South. The first extended the life of an agency Congress had created in to oversee read article transition from slavery to freedom. The Fourteenth marbles Fifteenth Amendments were recojstruction but remained on the the, forming the basis of the midth-century civil rights movement. At least two hundred seventy reconstruction African American politics served in patronage positions as postmasters, customs officials, assessors, and ambassadors.

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