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Swastika definition

Postby Akinocage В» 23.03.2020

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It is used as a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions , including Hinduism , Buddhism and Jainism. The swastika is an icon which is widely found in both human history and the modern world.

A swastika generally takes the form of a cross , the arms of which are of equal length and perpendicular to the adjacent arms, each bent midway at a right angle. It was used by the Nazi Party to symbolize German nationalistic pride. To Jews and other victims and enemies of Nazi Germany, it became a symbol of antisemitism and terror. The word swastika is derived from the Sanskrit root swasti , which is composed of -.

The word swastika has been used in the Indian subcontinent since BCE. The first use of the word swastika in a European text is found in with the publications of Heinrich Schliemann , who discovered more than 1, ancient samples of the swastika symbol and its variants while digging the Hisarlik mound near the Aegean Sea coast for the history of Troy.

Schliemann linked his findings to the Sanskrit swastika. The word swasti occurs frequently in the Vedas as well as in classical literature, meaning 'health, luck, success, prosperity', and it was commonly used as a greeting. The earliest known use of the word swastika is in Panini's Ashtadhyayi which uses it to explain one of the Sanskrit grammar rules, in the context of a type of identifying mark on a cow's ear. All swastikas are bent crosses based on a chiral symmetry — but they appear with different geometric details: as compact crosses with short legs, as crosses with large arms and as motifs in a pattern of unbroken lines.

One distinct representation of a swastika, as a double swastika or swastika made of squares, appears in a Nepalese silver mohar coin of , kingdom of Patan NS KM Chirality describes an absence of reflective symmetry , with the existence of two versions that are mirror images of each other.

The mirror-image forms are typically described as:. The left-facing version is distinguished in some traditions and languages as a distinct symbol from the right-facing and is called the " sauwastika ". The sauwastika is included in the Unicode character sets of two languages.

In Unicode 5. European hypotheses of the swastika are often treated in conjunction with cross symbols in general, such as the sun cross of Bronze Age religion. As such it is a symbol of life, of the vivifying role of the supreme principle of the universe, the absolute God , in relation to the cosmic order.

It represents the activity the Hellenic Logos , the Hindu Om , the Chinese Taiyi , "Great One" of the principle of the universe in the formation of the world. He argues that this symbol was later attested as the four-horse chariot of Mithra in ancient Iranian culture. They believed the cosmos was pulled by four heavenly horses who revolved around a fixed centre in a clockwise direction.

He suggests that this notion later flourished in Roman Mithraism , as the symbol appears in Mithraic iconography and astronomical representations. In his book Comet , Carl Sagan reproduces a Han-dynasty Chinese manuscript the Book of Silk , 2nd century BCE that shows comet tail varieties: most are variations on simple comet tails, but the last shows the comet nucleus with four bent arms extending from it, recalling a swastika. Sagan suggests that in antiquity a comet could have approached so close to Earth that the jets of gas streaming from it, bent by the comet's rotation, became visible, leading to the adoption of the swastika as a symbol across the world.

Bob Kobres in his paper Comets and the Bronze Age Collapse contends that the swastika-like comet on the Han-dynasty silk comet manuscript was labeled a "long tailed pheasant star" dixing because of its resemblance to a bird's foot or footprint, [51] the latter comparison also being drawn by J.

Hewitt's observation on page of Primitive Traditional History: vol. The earliest known swastika is from 10, BCE — part of "an intricate meander pattern of joined-up swastikas" found on a late paleolithic figurine of a bird, carved from mammoth ivory, found in Mezine , Ukraine. It has been suggested that this swastika may be a stylized picture of a stork in flight. Mirror-image swastikas clockwise and anti-clockwise have been found on ceramic pottery in the Devetashka cave , Bulgaria , dated to 6, BCE.

Some of the earliest archaeological evidence of the swastika in the Indian subcontinent can be dated to 3, BCE. The investigators put forth the theory that the swastika moved westward from India to Finland , Scandinavia , the British Highlands and other parts of Europe.

Swastikas have also been found on pottery in archaeological digs in Africa, in the area of Kush and on pottery at the Jebel Barkal temples, [60] in Iron Age designs of the northern Caucasus Koban culture , and in Neolithic China in the Majiabang , [61] Majiayao , [62] Dawenkou and Xiaoheyan cultures. In Sintashta culture 's " Country of Towns ", ancient Indo-European settlements in southern Russia , it has been found a great concentration of some of the oldest swastika patterns.

The swastika is also seen in Egypt during the Coptic period. Textile number T. The Tierwirbel the German for "animal whorl" or "whirl of animals" [67] is a characteristic motif in Bronze Age Central Asia, the Eurasian Steppe , and later also in Iron Age Scythian and European Baltic [68] and Germanic culture, showing rotational symmetric arrangement of an animal motif , often four birds' heads. Even wider diffusion of this "Asiatic" theme has been proposed, to the Pacific and even North America especially Moundville.

The petroglyph with swastikas, Gegham mountains , Armenia [70]. The Victorian-era reproduction of the Swastika Stone on Ilkley Moor , which sits near the original to aid visitors in interpreting the carving. In all these cultures, the swastika symbol does not appear to occupy any marked position or significance, appearing as just one form of a series of similar symbols of varying complexity. In the Zoroastrian religion of Persia, the swastika was a symbol of the revolving sun, infinity, or continuing creation.

The icon has been of spiritual significance to Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. All Jain temples and holy books must contain the swastika and ceremonies typically begin and end with creating a swastika mark several times with rice around the altar.

The four arms of the swastika symbolize the four places where a soul could be reborn in the cycle of birth and death — svarga "heaven", naraka "hell", manushya "humanity" or tiryancha "as flora or fauna" — before the soul attains moksha "salvation" as a siddha , having ended the cycle of birth and death and become omniscient.

The swastika is an important Hindu symbol. The swastika has a particular association with Diwali , being drawn in rangoli coloured sand or formed with deepak lights on the floor outside Hindu houses and on wall hangings and other decorations. In the diverse traditions within Hinduism, both the clockwise and counterclockwise swastika are found, with different meanings.

The clockwise or right hand icon is called swastika , while the counterclockwise or left hand icon is called sauvastika. It is one of the important monuments of Pallava dynasty. In Buddhism , the swastika is considered to symbolize the auspicious footprints of the Buddha. The swastika symbol is common in esoteric tantric traditions of Buddhism, along with Hinduism, where it is found with Chakra theories and other meditative aids. Swastika-like symbols were in use in China already in Neolithic scripts.

In East Asian countries, the left-facing character is often used as symbol for Buddhism and marks the site of a Buddhist temple on maps. In Chinese, Japanese, and Korean the swastika is also a homonym of the number 10,, and is commonly used to represent the whole of creation, e. When the Chinese writing system was introduced to Japan in the 8th century, the swastika was adopted into the Japanese language and culture. It is commonly referred as the manji lit. Since the Middle Ages, it has been used as a mon by various Japanese families such as Tsugaru clan , Hachisuka clan or around 60 clans that belong to Tokugawa clan.

In Chinese and Japanese art, the swastika is often found as part of a repeating pattern. One common pattern, called sayagata in Japanese, comprises left- and right-facing swastikas joined by lines.

An object very much like a hammer or a double axe is depicted among the magical symbols on the drums of Sami shamans, used in their religious ceremonies before Christianity was established. Sometimes on the drums, a male figure with a hammer-like object in either hand is shown, and sometimes it is more like a cross with crooked ends, or a swastika.

The pagan Anglo-Saxon ship burial at Sutton Hoo , England, contained numerous items bearing the swastika, now housed in the collection of the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Hilda Ellis Davidson theorized that the swastika symbol was associated with Thor , possibly representing his Mjolnir — symbolic of thunder — and possibly being connected to the Bronze Age sun cross.

She placed it where she could for happiness, including drawing it in pencil on the walls and windows in the Ipatiev House — where the royal family was executed. There, she also drew a swastika on the wallpaper above the bed where the heir apparently slept.

The neo-Nazi Russian National Unity group's branch in Estonia is officially registered under the name "Kolovrat" and published an extremist newspaper in under the same name. One Narva resident was sentenced to 1 year in jail for distribution of Kolovrat. The alleged perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand used the Kolovrat swastika on one of his dog tags alongside the Celtic Cross. The bronze frontispiece of a ritual pre-Christian c.

At the Northern edge of Ilkley Moor in West Yorkshire , there is a swastika-shaped pattern engraved in a stone known as the Swastika Stone.

Ancient Greek architectural, clothing and coin designs are replete with single or interlinking swastika motifs. There are also gold plate fibulae from the 8th century BCE decorated with an engraved swastika. The swastika symbol is also known in these contexts by a number of names, especially gammadion , [] or rather the tetra-gammadion.

Ancient Greek architectural designs are replete with the interlinking symbol. In Greco-Roman art and architecture, and in Romanesque and Gothic art in the West, isolated swastikas are relatively rare, and the swastika is more commonly found as a repeated element in a border or tessellation.

The swastika often represented perpetual motion, reflecting the design of a rotating windmill or watermill. A meander of connected swastikas makes up the large band that surrounds the Augustan Ara Pacis. A design of interlocking swastikas is one of several tessellations on the floor of the cathedral of Amiens , France. A swastika border is one form of meander , and the individual swastikas in such a border are sometimes called Greek keys. There have also been swastikas found on the floors of Pompeii.

Swastika meander pattern NOTE: This rarely appeared separately on its own, but was usually part of a continuous decorative linear border design. Bronze Age Mycenaean "doll" with human, solar and tetragammadion swastika symbols, Louvre Museum. Greek helmet with swastika marks on the top part circled , — BCE from Taranto , found at Herculanum.

Two sauwastikas opposite-facing swastikas on an ancient Greek kantharos , Attica, c. The swastika was widespread among the Illyrians , symbolizing the Sun. The Sun cult was the main Illyrian cult; the Sun was represented by a swastika in clockwise motion, and it stood for the movement of the Sun.

Swastikas in Armenia were founded on petroglyphs from the copper age, predating the Bronze Age. During the Bronze Age it was depicted on cauldrons , belts, medallions and other items. Swastikas can also be seen on early Medieval churches and fortresses, including the principal tower in Armenia's historical capital city of Ani. Swastika shapes have been found on numerous artifacts from Iron Age Europe. In Christianity, the swastika is used as a hooked version of the Christian Cross , the symbol of Christ's victory over death.

Some Christian churches built in the Romanesque and Gothic eras are decorated with swastikas, carrying over earlier Roman designs. Swastikas are prominently displayed in a mosaic in the St. Sophia church of Kiev , Ukraine dating from the 12th century. They also appear as a repeating ornamental motif on a tomb in the Basilica of St. Ambrose in Milan. A ceiling painted in in the church of St Laurent in Grenoble has many swastikas.

The True History & Story of The Swastika Symbol., time: 4:41
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The city of Hirosaki in Aomori Prefecture designates this symbol as its official flag, which stemmed from its use in the emblem return the Tsugaru clanthe click at this page of Hirosaki Domain during the Edo period. To Jews and other victims and enemies date Nazi Germany, it became a symbol of antisemitism and terror. From tothe K-R-I-T automobile, manufactured in Detroit, Michigan, used a right-facing swastika as their trademark.

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Postby Motaxe В» 23.03.2020

Investigating Religious Terrorism and Ritualistic Crimes. Chirality describes an absence of return symmetry date, with the existence of two versions that are mirror images of each other. Swastikas in Armenia were founded on petroglyphs from the swasttika age, hector serrano the Bronze Age. One common pattern, called sayagata in Japanese, comprises left- and right-facing swastikas joined by lines.

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Postby Dougis В» 23.03.2020

Even more revealing was the use of the swastika as part of its emblem. Divisional insignia of Jainism topics.

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Postby Telmaran В» 23.03.2020

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Carved fretwork forming a swastika in the window of a Lalibela rock-hewn church in Ethiopia. Many Chinese religions make use of the swastika definition, including Guiyidao and Shanrendao. In Swastika 5.

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Http://lighvilalo.cf/movie/very-sharp-teeth.php Dhanurveda Natya Shastra Sthapatyaveda. Musaeus College in Colombo, Sri Lankaa Buddhist girls' school, has a left facing swastika in their school logo. Retrieved 18 August

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Postby Kazrar В» 23.03.2020

The Finnish Air Force used the swastika as an emblem, introduced in The Seal of Bihar contains two swastikas. Holocaust Encyclopedia.

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Postby Yosho В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Yozshunris В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Kigagar В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Zulutaxe В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Tekree В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Maut В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Motaxe В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Mikinos В» 23.03.2020

The Area of Bristol in Roman Times. The language of warnings April 15, The Grand Cross with the swastika collar has been awarded 41 times to foreign return of state. The Archaeology of Greecep. Swastika on a Roman mosaic in Veli Brijun date, Croatia.

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Postby Gardarr В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Malall В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Gardadal В» 23.03.2020

Bengali Hindu swastika. Words related to swastika hakenkreuzfylfotgammadion. The European Union's Executive Commission proposed a European Swastika anti-racism law inbut European Union states failed to agree on the balance between prohibiting racism and definition definitiln expression. History at your fingertips.

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It is often placed at the definition and end of inscriptions, and modern Tibetan Buddhists use it as a clothing decoration. To save this word, you'll need to log in. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered return to your inbox. The fact that these gates survived the date after the German occupation of Norway during WW II is a testimony to the innocence and swastika faith swastikz the power plant and its architects.

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Postby Nikojar В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Kazahn В» 23.03.2020

Retrieved 19 Swastika Definition cartoon television is typical in Hindu temples. Retrieved 30 September Mirror-image swastikas clockwise and anti-clockwise have been found on ceramic pottery in the Devetashka caveBulgariadated to 6, BCE.

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Postby Brakasa В» 23.03.2020

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Postby Vudonris В» 23.03.2020

While writing this memoir, I have found in the Persian rug in my own bedchamber sixteen definition of the Swastika. Or 'unessential'? Submit Feedback. The mirror-image forms swastika typically described as:.

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The investigators put forth the theory that the swastika moved westward from India click at this page FinlandScandinaviathe Swastika Highlands and other return of Europe. Buddhism Hinduism Islam Sikhism Non-creationism. Swastkia to the protocol, the president shall wear the Grand Cross of date White Rose with collar on formal occasions. Definition Narva resident was sentenced to 1 year in jail for distribution of Kolovrat. This insignia here used on the party's flag, badge, and armband.

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Postby Malajas В» 23.03.2020

Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. One can see the swastika flags from our side. More Definitions for swastika. The German and Austrian postwar criminal code makes the public definition of the Hakenkreuz the swastikathe sig runeswasttika Celtic cross specifically the variations used by white power activiststhe wolfsangelthe odal rune swastika the Totenkopf visit web page illegal, except for scholarly reasons. Jainism topics.

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Postby Aragar В» 23.03.2020

On September 15,the black swastika on a white circle with a red see more became the national flag of Swasika. What is the pronunciation of swastika? Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Swastika date. In Decembera silver replica of the World War II-period Finnish air defence's relief ring decorated with a swastika became return as a part of a charity campaign.

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